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In part 2 of our postmortem series, we dig into how to establish a culture of continuous learning, from getting leadership on board to invoking...
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This is one of two PagerDuty posts on Continuous. Check out our second one: Continuous — Build, Break, and Fix Fast
There is a large gap between the understanding of modern processes and technologies, and actually doing something with them. In the DevOps movement, many of the core functions have met wide adoption, such as orchestration, release automation, and analytics. But what have not been as widely adopted are the end-to-end processes of continuous delivery and deployment, which is not a case of understanding — It is dictated by existing organizational elements and practicality. Are you ready for continuous delivery and deployment?
There is a deficit in the definitions of continuous delivery and continuous deployment. So before I dive deeper into the topic, I need to give my definition. Delivery means up to release, but not direct to production. There is still a gate, and someone has to hit the Go button. Deployment refers to what is put directly into production after all tests pass. The difference might seem trivial, but it isn’t. Deployment not only allows but also requires releases on a daily basis. It also implies a very robust reverting mechanism, which is heavily reliant on great alerting and log analysis.
The remainder of this post will cover continuous deployment (referred to from this point as CD).
CD has two dimensions that determine its practicality. The first is related directly to the application. The second is related to the environment in which the processes are going to be implemented.
What I am about to tell you are “fightin’ words.” It is not (yet) widely accepted that CD is dependant on your application type and architecture. However, you will find that the CD pipelines that already exist share a lot of similarities in the nature of their application. And the companies that are opportunistic about CD but have not yet implemented it are running into a wall.
The aspects of application architecture that will prevent CD are:
Low transactions and low user base numbers are relative to your market and expectations from your users. It should be relatively clear to you whether you’ve satisfied these numbers or not. Beyond the attributes of your application, most organizations are attempting to implement CD in an existing delivery chain, which means there are existing processes and people to contend with. It’s possible to implement processes of CD without addressing the existing organization, but this usually leads to non-sustainable environments. Here are some key elements to consider:
One approach to responding to both of these challenges is choosing to emulate what the startups are able to do: build the application with the CD process from day one. Because most organizations already have existing applications, this is not possible. The best way to do this is to build a new version of the application in parallel, leveraging CD from the start. This will take time, but if your application was built with a services architecture, and a strong API layer for the backend, it should not be insurmountable.
Turning magic into reality is the real win. And many of the organizations who have successfully implemented CD have started with processes such as continuous integration first. They refined their approach, their tools, and their team structure in a way that gave them the confidence to move on to CD. They also focused on execution and sustainability, not just more releases direct to production.
Without jumping in on faith, the tool market will lead the way. And if your application lends itself to CD, and you are willing to do it right, you are ready for continuous deployment.
This blog was co-authored by myself and Simon Darken. Once a year, PagerDuty’s SREs get together for a three-day, in-person offsite. With the team spread...
A release is a set of customer visible and operational features that together provide a completely new or improved product capability. It’s something that’s meaningful...
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